Tag Archives: The Last Messenger of Allah

The concept of Forced Marriages


The concept of Forced Marriages


Marriage within the ambit of Islam is not only a civil contract but a religious and spiritual contract between two people – which must be entered into freely and with mutual consent. According to Islamic custom, parents and guardians have specific rights in this matter; to arrange the marriage ceremony and conduct it as a respectful family event; give their advice and recommendation for a life partner for their children. These rights are encapsulated within the philosophy of ‘wilayah’. However, Islam does not allow parents, guardians or other relatives to enforce their will or choice on a boy or a girl since it is they who are the real parties to that contract. The right to exercise free will and consent in choosing a spouse is a God given right. This is also clearly evident from important commandments given by the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) in numerous Hadith, which lay down the foundational principles of formulating a marriage contract.


In the Sahih Al-Bukhari, for example, a chapter in the book of marriage has been given the heading: “No father or mother or any close relation can force his/her children to marry any one against their free will and consent”


It is related from Hadrat Abu Hurayra(Radiyallahu Anhu) that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said“A previously married woman should not be married until she has been consulted. A virgin is not married until she has been asked for her permission.”

They said, “Messenger of Allah, how does she give permission?”

‘He replied, “It is when she remains silent.”

{Sahih Bukhari , Book of Marriage , Hadith #4843}


Imam Bukhari has set another chapter heading within the book of marriage: “If parents force their daughter to marry someone against her wish then the marriage will be void”.

Under this chapter Imam Bukhari reports a Hadith of the Holy Prophet(peace be upon him).

It is related from Hadrat Khansa’ bint Khidham al-Ansariyya that her father gave her in marriage when she had been married before and she disliked that. She went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who cancelled the marriage.{Sahih Bukhari , Book of Marriage , Hadith #4845}


In another Hadith in the Sahih of Imam Bukhari it is narrated by Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (Radiyallahu Anhu) that the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) said that if a woman wants to marry and is already a divorcee or widow, her right of free consent and free choice is superior than the right of her guardian. If she is not previously married and this is her first marriage even then her parents or other guardians cannot enforce their choice on her. They are not allowed to force her to marry any one against her free choice and free consent. It is thus clearly apparent that forced marriages are totally unacceptable in Islam. Islamic commandments as mentioned above are very categorical in nature. Those who invoke Islam in order to justify their actions do so for ulterior motives. There is a need to educate all and sundry on these issues. In most of the cases, forced marriages are the result of monetary gains, local and tribal traditions and caste affiliations. Strict legislation accompanied by media awareness campaign could be helpful in stemming the trend of the forced marriages.


Sahibzada Hassan Mohi ud Din Qadri

President Supreme Council, Minhaj-ul-Quran International



(The writer is a PhD scholar in Islamic Law at an Egyptian University, Cairo)


Teachings about kindness to Birds

Almighty Allah says in the Qur’an: And, (O mankind!) there is no moving (animal) on the earth nor a bird that flies on its two wings but (such) that they are species like you [umamun amthalu-kum — in several traits].  (Qur’an 6 Surah Al-Anam :Verse 38).

The Glorious Qur’an emphasizes the point that even those species which are generally considered as insignificant deserve to be treated as communities; irrespective of their usefulness or apparent ineffectiveness. Birds too have individual and social life, like members of a human community. In other words, they are like communities in their own right and they too have rights. Islam wants us to think and act in the positive terms of accepting all species as communities like us in their own right and not to sit in judgment on them according to our own whims and desires.

-Holy Qur’an mentions the communication of Prophet Solomon(pbuh) and Prophet David(pbuh) with birds.

And Sulaiman (Solomon) succeeded Dawud (David) and said: ‘O people, we have been taught the speech of birds (as well) and we have been granted everything. No doubt, this is most obvious Grace (of Allah).’

And armies for Sulaiman (Solomon) were collected from among (all species of) the jinn, human beings and birds. So they were held on (in his service) for discipline and training.

►{Chapter 27 Sura Al Naml, Verse 16-17}

So We alone taught Sulaiman ([Solomon] the way to make that judgment) and blessed them all with reason and knowledge. And We made (even) the mountains and the birds subservient to (the command of) Dawud (David).They all celebrated (Our) Praise (with him jointly). And it was We Who were doing (all this).►{Chapter 21 Surah Al-Ambiya : Verse 79}

– There are traditions which show that our Beloved Prophet(peace be upon him) communicated with birds. Prophet Muhamamd(peace be upon him) used to command his followers to have mercy on birds. Holy Prophet(peace be upon him) once reprimanded a group among his companions who had taken the young ones of a bird and the mother bird complained about them to the Prophet(peace be upon him).There are numerous incidents in books of Sufism which talk about the Muslim saints and other holy men who could talk to  birds.

– A companion of Holy Prophet (pbuh) Hazrat Abu Darda(Radiyallahu Anhu) used to buy sparrows from children and free them and used to say,”Fly away and lead a free life)”

– Its forbidden in Islam to  mutilate live animals, incite birds to fight and to set up birds in a cage as a target and tie up live birds as targets.


Causing Distress to Birds for the sake of amusement


During a journey of Prophet(peace be upon him) with his companions ,he had left them for a while. Some among the travelers saw a bird with her two young ones and they captured her young ones. The bird came and began to spread its wings.

Beloved Prophet(peace be upon him) came and said: “Who grieved this for its young ones? Return its young ones to it.” ►{Ref. Sunan Abu Dawud , Vol 3,Hadith #902}

‘Abdullah reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, stopped in a place and then someone took a bird’s eggs and  the bird began to beat its wings around the head of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

He asked, “Which of you has taken its eggs?”

A man said, “Messenger of Allah, I have taken its eggs.”

The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him said, “RETURN THEM OUT OF MERCY TO THE BIRD”►{Reported by Imam Bukhari in Al -Adab Al-Mufrad,Hadith # 382}image002

Unlawfulness of making target of a tied bird
Hadith #1
Hadrat Sa’id b. Jubair(Radi Allahu anhu) reported that: Hadrat Ibn ‘Umar(Radi Allahu anhu) happened to pass by some young men of the Quraish who had tied a bird (and made it a target) at which they had been shooting arrows. So no sooner did they see Hadrat Ibn ‘Umar(Radiallahu anhu) they dispersed.
Thereupon Hadrat Ibn ‘Umar(Radi Allahu anhu) said: “Who has done this? Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) invoked curse upon one who does this(i.e. made a live thing the target of one’s marksmanship))”.� {Reported by Imam Muslim, Kitab-us-Said wa’l-Dhaba’ih,Hadith #4946}

Hadith #2
Hisham b. Zaid b. Anas b. Milik(Radiyallahu Anhu) reported: I visited the house of al-Hakam b. Ayyub along with my grandfather Hadrat Anas b. Milik, (and there) some people had made a hen a target and were shooting arrows at her.
Thereupon Hazrat Anas(Radiyallahu Anhu) said that(meaning) : ”Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has forbidden targeting of tied animals “(with arrows etc.) � {Reported by Imam Muslim, Kitab-us-Said wa’l-Dhaba’ih , Hadith #4942}

Hadith #3
Hazrat Ibn ‘Abbas (Radi Allahu anhu) reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this(meaning): ”Do not make anything having life as a target by tying it.” ► {Reported by Imam Muslim, Kitab-us-Said wa’l-Dhaba’ih,Hadith #4944}

Teaching’s about Kindness towards animals

In Pre Islamic era, concepts such as animal rights too and that they need compassion as well were alien for the Arab society.

Prophet Muhammad(peace be upon him) not only preached to the people to show kindness to each other but also to all living souls.Thus,

Prophet peace be upon him, is the embodiment of peace, extending peace even to animals and beasts of burden.

Prophet Muhammad(peace be upon him) stated“Verily, there is heavenly reward for every act of kindness done to a living animal.“

{Sahih Muslim,Kitab as-Salam}

Once while Prophet Muhammad(peace be upon him) was marching with his army, he saw that way a female dog that has just given birth with her puppies. He called one of his friends, Djuail the son of Suraka and gave orders: -” You will wait in front of the mother dog and her puppies and by keeping their sentry till all the army has passed, you will protect them from being ran over.”

Thus, the mother dog and her puppies had not been disturbed, but the conquering army of ten thousand had to change some direction.

{Reported by Ibn-e-Ishaq}

Therefore the peace which descended upon the Earth was a universal peace – for humans, and animals, and birds, and for all created beings on the face of the Earth.


Incident of Hazrat Musa(AS) and the lamb


Once Hazrat Mûsa (AS)’s lamb ran away from the flock. Mûsa (AS) ran behind it for miles in order to catch it, and in the process hurt his feet over thorns till they were bleeding.The same thing also happened to the lamb, until it finally stood at one place, breathing heavily, unable to run any more.

Hazrat Mûsa (AS) caught the tired little animal and instead of being angry at it, tears flowed out of his eyes as he consoled the animal saying:

“O sheep, if you did not feel sorry for Mûsa, at least you should have pitied yourself. Why did you put yourself into so much trouble?”

Before removing the thorns from his own feet, Hazrat Mûsa (AS) first removed the thorns from the sheep, then rubbed and pressed its legs, lifted it up onto his shoulders and carried it back to its flock.

Imâm Fakhroodin Râzi (RA) writes that the malâika(angels) said to Allâh,

“O Allâh! this person is worthy of becoming a Prophet because of his qualities of tolerance and patience . O Allâh! do make him a Prophet.”

Allâh Ta’âla replied: “I have already chosen him to be my Prophet.”

Those from whom Allâh has destined high stages, He imbues them with noble qualities and strength of tolerance.

Reference : http://www.livingislam.org/o/mhmd_e.html

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